A Call For Action For The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation

Anil-Pharande

 

 

Anil Pharande is Vice President of CREDAI Pune Metro and Chairman of Pharande  Spaces, a leading construction and development firm that develops township properties in the PCMC area of Pune, India.

The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation was honoured by by presence of Maharashtra Chief Minister Shri Prithviraj Chavan, Deputy Chief Minister Shri Ajit Pawar and NCP President Shri Sharad Pawar. These distinguished dignitaries had very generously agreed to inaugurate several key infrastructure projects at PCMC:

  • The new PCNTDA building near Akurdi Railway station
  • The Traffic Park at Bhosari
  • The flyover near Spine Road
  • PCMC’s very own Nala Park
  • The Science Park at Auto Cluster

We, the architects of India’s most progressive planned city, were truly inspired by the kind words of praise, encouragement and hope that these honoured guests offered at the inauguration ceremonies. It is clear that the Government has recognized Pimpri-Chinchwad as the City of the Future, and that the city can depend on the fullest support as it continues to progress.

Nevertheless, there are reasons to be cautious in all this optimism. It is true that the careful and futuristic engineering of development at PCMC by the PCNTDA has become a national and even international benchmark for town planning. However, there have been various challenges along this road to progress. We need to take these hurdles into consideration if the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation is to fulfill its maximum potential as the City of the future.

Considering the pace at which real estate development has been taking place, certain lacunae in adhering to the PCNTDA’s master plan were unavoidable. One of the most glaring examples of this was the emergence of unauthorized structures in various pockets of the PCMC.

Thankfully, this issue is being dealt with firmly. The authorities have embarked on a massive drive to deal with such structures, and we are confident that all illegal constructions will be erased from the landscape by the end of 2013. However, we cannot deny that these are damage control measures which would not have been necessary if the damage had never been allowed to occur in the first place.

More Road Connectivity

Another area of concern is lack of adequate road connectivity between certain key areas of the PCMC and areas such as Talegaon. Because of the massive potential for industrial and residential development in and around these areas, they have seen most of the road construction initiatives. In the process, road connectivity from these locations to some of the most important growth areas of PCMC has been largely ignored.

Paradoxically, the areas referred to as Phase 2 in the PCMC development plan hold the highest potential for real estate growth. Thanks to the availability of large land parcels at relatively lower prices, residential and commercial realty development has picking up rapidly in areas such as Moshi. In the meantime, Moshi has become a hotbed for property investments because of the International Convention Centre being jointly developed by the Maratha Chamber of Commerce and the PCMC.

Despite this, there is still no sufficient road connectivity between Phase 2 and the larger industrial hubs. This is going to prove to be a huge stumbling-block for the overall growth of the region. The lack of a suitable road network means that people living in areas like Moshi face difficulties in reaching their workplaces in these employment clusters. This issue must be addressed on a priority basis. A city like PCMC must do everything in its power to ensure that its growth pockets are not isolated from each other.

PCMC Needs To Expand

Yet another issue is that the population within the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation is growing at an annual rate of 73%. Such a rate of growth makes it necessary to provide more spaces for development. Unfortunately, there have been limitations put on the city’s potential for geographic expansion by Red Zones (non-development areas).

It is imperative that more of the region’s outlying villages be included in the urbanization plan. There are enough examples in India of what happens when a city does not expand geographically in tandem with its population growth. Such a situation must not be allowed to develop in the PCMC. Also, PCMC needs to be able to accommodate the rapid growth in population in terms of providing more educational institutions, shopping complexes, healthcare establishments and entertainment zones.

Encourage Green Development

Finally, I would like to touch on PCMC’s major thrust towards sustainable real estate development. It is no secret that green development is the future of real estate all over the world. In fact, many of the bigger residential townships and commercial complexes in the PCMC have already adopted the ‘green development’ mantra. The new PCNTDA building itself is a resounding statement to how important sustainable development has become to the city.

Nevertheless, there is still a noticeable lack of enthusiasm within the region about the benefits of green homes and workplaces. One of the reasons for this is lack of awareness. Many of the region’s residential property developers and buyers have not been attuned to the advantages of environmentally sustainable properties. I urge the State Government to join hands with the PCMC to bring about greater awareness and eventual adoption of this vitally important principle.

I also strongly advocate better incentives for developers and buyers of green homes in the PCMC. The use of non-conventional energy sources and sustainable waste water management does not only have a positive impact on the environment and on the overall quality of life. Such measures reduce the strain on municipal resources, resulting in significant revenue savings. Unless the benefits of these savings are passed back on to the developers and buyers of sustainable properties, we cannot expect a more wide-spread adoption of the ‘green’ mantra in PCMC.

We gratefully acknowledge the importance that the visiting dignitaries have given to the City of the Future by gracing it with their presence. At the same time, we sincerely request them to take heed of PCMC’s most urgent requirements.

Pune Infrastructure Deficit – Causes And Cure

In the rush to develop projects during Pune’s real estate boom time, the very important factor of support infrastructure was neglected. This was especially true for projects within the city and the adjoining areas. Due to the high demand for properties, people kept on buying and developers kept on building even though infrastructure was declining rapidly.

Pune Property

However, Pune property buyers soon discovered that both their standard of living went down and the investment value of their properties stagnated because of the inferior infrastructure. Eventually, the new breed of Pune real estate buyers became more aware of the importance of basic infrastructure, and of their right to expect it. The highest demand is now for Pune flats that are affordable and also offer basic civil infrastructure such as adequate sewage, access roads, connectivity to important places, water and electricity supply, etc.

The problem of Pune’s infrastructure deficit is actually very surprising. The problem should logically be lower for projects developed within the city limits. After all, the municipal corporation has the advantages of sufficient funding and opportunity for forward planning. However, it is areas such as PCMC which have taken the infrastructure message more seriously. As a result, infrastructure in the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation is visibly superior to what Pune City has to offer. People who have bought homes in township properties in Pimpri Chinchwad are even better off, because these projects offer high-class internal infrastructure, as well.

The PCNTDA (Pimpri Chinchwad New Township Development Authority) has ensured that all residential areas in the PCMC have sufficient infrastructure. As a result, the quality of life and appreciation potential of residential properties in PCMC are at a very high level. Meanwhile, Pune continues to face problems of traffic congestion, lack of adequate open spaces and green areas, pollution, etc. The Maharashtra Government has been proactive in assisting with infrastructural enablement for its cities. However, it is not possible for the Government to rush in with support infrastructure whenever developers decide to build.

As such, developers should assume a larger share of responsibility for the establishment of infrastructure for their projects if they aspire for success for their projects. However, there is one more thing the Maharashtra Government can do to ensure that Pune’s newer areas get sufficient infrastructure. It can revise its policies on development and follow the model adopted by forward looking bodies such as the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation and the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA), which has implemented large-scale infrastructure reforms that do not necessarily involve huge budgets.

The model involves acquiring a larger tract of land, putting in all necessary civic infrastructures, and returning that component to the owners as developed land that has immediate market value. In return, they retain the remaining part for further development of their own projects.

Anil-Pharande

 

 

Anil Pharande – Vice President, CREDAI Pune Metro & Chairman, Pharande Spaces

A Proposal For Revitalization Of Pune’s Development Plan

The draft Development Plan (DP) for the 23 villages to be merged into Pune’s Municipal limits has been more or less finalized. It has given emphasis to the Pune metro, and it also proposes to increase the permissible height for high rises in the established parts of the city from 100 metres to 150 metres. Vertical growth is obviously the only way to go in the areas of Pune where horizontal spread is no longer possible.

development-plan

There is great potential for Pune real estate, and the Development Plan is supposed to aid its growth. However, there are some major areas of concern when it comes to its efficiency in doing so. One of the prime concerns is the process involved in formulating, finalizing and implementing the DP in the first place.

This process comes under the purview of the MRTP Act for urban growth in Maharashtra. As it stands now, it is archaic and extremely slow-moving process. To begin with, just getting it from the blue-print to approval stage involves several agencies. Only when the required approvals have been obtained from all these agencies can the Development Plan be finalized by the Chief Minister and implemented by the Pune Municipal Corporation.

This is an extremely cumbersome process, and the amount of red tape it takes to finalize and implement the Pune Development Plan is enormous. It should be remembered that the Government of Maharashtra has to handle the approval and implementation of the Development Plan in tandem with countless other proposals from all over the State. This is why this process usually takes anything between 10-15 years to be finalized and put into actual practice.

These huge delays further give rise to vastly increased costs, wasted time and negatively impact on the city’s GDP. At this critical juncture of deployment of Pune’s development Plan, it would make sense to look at more progressive models of planned urban development. The Government of Maharashtra could consider the method that has worked so well in Ahmedabad in close-by Gujarat and in the neighbouring Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation.

There are good reasons for considering the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation as a suitable role model for progressive urban development. Only recently, the PCMC was honoured with the ‘Best City in India’ award at the hands of the Prime Minister himself. Pune’s booming sister city simultaneously received two further national awards under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) for the improvements made in its water supply and waste water management, and for effective enforcement of policies aimed at the Economically Weaker Sections.

What is this progressive model of urban development that could transform the PMC, as well? In simple terms, it involves three distinct, time-bound stages. In the first stage, the Government acquires land under roads and reservations at a stipulated rate or in the form of TDR (Transfer of Development Rights). A blueprint for complete social and civic infrastructure creation of the new zones to be developed is then drawn up. This includes roads, water and electricity supply as well as designation of areas for residential development, schools, shopping, hospitals, workplace hubs and industry.

The laying down of this infrastructure can then put on the fast track by creating a Special Purpose Vehicle for a dedicated infrastructure fund. Pune’s new Development Plan will a certain number of kilometers of road length. The total cost of road development can be calculated and the cost per square foot could then be loaded on to the residential development of these areas in the next stage. Interestingly, this cost is very minimal and can be easily borne.

With the kind of will and focus that was displayed by PCMC when it used this model, the entire road development and civic infrastructure development can be completed with three years. At this stage, the newly established and fully infrastructure-enabled areas are then opened up to developers for residential and commercial development.

The advantages of such an approach are manifold. In the first place, there is a uniform, horizontal spread of real estate. Development does not take place in pockets, but in a scientific manner. The creation of road networks and electricity and water supplies before actual real estate development ensures that property prices remain rational and equitable. There would be a very favourable effect on the affordability of homes in these new areas. All these factors together ensure that there is optimal economic growth that benefits everyone.

The Government of Maharashtra has already committed itself to fast-track growth of its cities. By adopting the above-mentioned model, this commitment can actually bring real-time results.

Anil-Pharande

 

 

Anil Pharande is Vice President of CREDAI Pune Metro and Chairman of Pharande  Spaces, a leading construction and development firm that develops township properties in the PCMC area of Pune, India.

PCMC gets defence land for widening Aundh Road

(Times of India, Sept. 10, 2011)

pune PropertyPUNE: The work of widening the Aundh-Ravet Road near Aundh commenced on Friday after a gap of nearly a year. The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation has begun the work as it has received written permission from the defence authorities. The road-widening work had been stalled as the defence authorities had earlier objected to the work.

Municipal commissioner Ashish Sharma said the defence authorities on Thursday granted the permission to the PCMC. He said the PCMC had earlier paid Rs 18 crore to the defence authorities for the land.

The widening work will be from the Aundh Chest Hospital up to Y junction. The work will reduce traffic congestion on the narrow road near the hospital, he added. The widening work on the 14.4-km Aundh-Ravet Road is being done for developing a BRT corridor. For early completion of the work, the road has been divided into seven sections for which contracts have been given. The work on widening the four-km stretch from Rajiv Gandhi bridge in Aundh to Sai chowk in New Sangvi could not be completed due to the delay in getting the defence land.

The narrow stretch of the road is a bottleneck and witnesses daily traffic snarls during the peak morning and evening hours and causes inconvenience to hundreds of motorists.

Dilip Kudale, coordinator, engineering department, PCMC, said, the road is being widened from 15 to 45 metres. The PCMC will complete the work in the next six months.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/PCMC-gets-defence-land-for-widening-Aundh-Road/articleshow/9930496.cms

PCMC Will Decide On 234 Acres On Saturday

(TOI, Dec 16, 2010)

land

PUNE: Over 234 acres of land in the green zone, meant for agriculture, in the fringe areas of Pimpri-Chinchwad near Moshi is all set to become residential, if the general body and the state government approve a proposal mooted by the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation.

The proposal was recently approved by the PCMC’s law committee. It says that the use of 95 hectares of land at Chikhli Borhadewadi in Moshi should be modified from green zone to residential zone. It will be discussed at the general body meeting on Saturday.

The land was earlier in the 1995 development plan of the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Township Development Authority (PCNTDA). Some areas of the development plan were later brought under the development control regulations of the municipal corporation. The 234 acres of land is also under the development control regulations.

Avinash Patil, deputy director of town planning, PCMC said that the land use was being changed to prevent encroachments on it. “The change in zoning will happen only after the general body approves the proposal. The state government’s approval will also be needed,” he said.

The civic body will first undertake a land-use survey, and prepare a map considering the reservations. It will then plan new roads in the area.

Suggestions and objections from citizens as per the Maharashtra Regional Town Planning Act for changing the zone of the land will be invited.

Why Integrated Residential Projects Have Higher Investment Value

celestial-city-ravet-roads
Planned integrated projects have better property investment value

The concept of living in an integrated residential community is far from new in India. From villages in the rural areas to chawls in the urban areas, we have been doing it for centuries. However, with the rapid urbanization of our cities over the past few decades, the integrated residential project has become a more specialized real estate model.

We all know how disconnected we tend to become from each other while living in cities like Pune and Mumbai. Most developers tend to build their residential projects in such cities wherever small parcels of land are available.

As a result, people tend to live in smaller, isolated pockets. Coupled with the stresses of modern work life, this makes developing a sense of neighbourhood impossible. Homeowners buy units, but they cannot buy a sense of community.

The problems don’t end there. Residential properties in smaller, stand-alone projects do not have the same capacity for maintaining and increasing property investment value as integrated residential projects.

There are various reasons for the higher appreciation prospects of such planned residential projects:

Integrated residential projects adhere to a pre-set development plan with regards to open spaces, communal amenities and common areas. This means that the overall value of the location does not decrease because of unrestricted developments that may crop up later on.

Since such projects have their own infrastructure, they do not depend heavily on what the local municipal corporation delivers (or doesn’t deliver) in terms of sewage management, water supply and overall maintenance of the immediate surroundings.

Both these factors add a lot to the demand for homes in integrated residential developments, because they are directly related to better comfort and quality of life.

Planned integrated projects have better property investment value because there is uniformity of the home designs. Living in such a project assures residents that nobody will build either more luxurious or inferior homes in their neighbourhood.

Moreover, the maintenance of an integrated residential project is centralized. All this means that the overall social profile of the residential community is maintained at all times. Demand for homes in such projects is very high on the property market.

Considering the escalating crime rate in cities like Pune, security has become a big issue for Pune property owners. Burglaries apart, it becomes next to impossible to ensure sufficient security in smaller residential projects in the event of communal riots or other large-scale disruptions.

Since integrated residential projects have various levels of security that protect the entire project, homeowners are assured of much higher levels of safety for themselves, their families and their possessions. Such security commands a higher premium on the Pune property market.

It’s no secret that home buyers look for convenience in shopping and entertainment. The fact that integrated residential projects have these within walking distance adds tremendously to the property investment value of its units.

Because integrated residential projects are conceived and executed by a single developer, there are no variations in construction standards. In the unplanned localities that are so much a part of the Pune property market, many developers with different construction ideologies and standards have projects next to each other.

Substandard construction in one project will not only pull down its own property market value, but also that of those next to it. Two or three inferiorly designed and constructed buildings can cause the entire location’s market profile to collapse.

For all these reasons, the integrated residential projects coming up in Pradhikaran and other areas of the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) have boosted this area’s entire property market.

Anil Pharande is President of CREDAI PCMC and Chairman of Pharande Spaces, a leading construction and development firm that develops township properties in the PCMC area of Pune, India.

This article may be reprinted with proper attribution to the author and a link back to PunePropertyBlog.com

PCMC Land Acquisition Notices Sent To 1,800 People

(Times of India, October 6 2010)

PUNE:  The land acquisition office of the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation has sent notices to 1,800 people in Kalewadi to acquire land for construction of a road from MM School to the Pavana river. This half-km stretch is part of the Kalewadi phata-Dehu Alandi road bus rapid transit system (BRTS) route.

P G Nale, special land acquisition officer said, “The office started sending notices to the people 10 days ago.

“The notices have been served under the urgency clause of land acquisition as the land is urgently needed to construct the road. The land acquisition department will take possession of the land on October 20. Enquiry about the land owners and the area needed for the road will be conducted after October 27,” Nale said.

Nale said that details of the plot partitions registered in the revenue survey were available with the office but the civic body did not know who the actual owners were. Hence, notices had been sent to all the plot owners according to the survey numbers.

“We need to acquire very little land for the road which has a length of 500 m, he said. The road will be 45 m wide. The land on the right side of this road is within Pimpri-Chinchwad New Township Development Authority (PCNTDA) limits while that on the left side is within PCMC limits,” he said.

“The land within PCNTDA limits had been acquired by the authority many years ago and no compensation needs to be given. The PCNTDA will just transfer the land to the PCMC after the land acquisition drive,” Nale said.

The stretch is part of an 11-km BRTS route being built by the PCMC under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission scheme.

PMPML Goes In For An Image Makeover

PUNE: The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation’s decision to allow commercial use of land owned by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML) has pepped up the transport body chief Dilip Band, who has said that Pune’s bus transport is in the process of transforming into an efficient public transport organisation with quality buses and up-to-date commuter facilities.

Launching the Pune bus guide, developed jointly by the PMPML and Janwani, an initiative of the MCCIA, Band said, “Our prime focus is to encourage college-goers and those in IT services to travel by city buses so that the number of private vehicles on roads will reduce.”

Band said that the delivery of 500 new buses, being procured under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM), will begin from October. “The buses will have an unique colour combination and doors on both sides,” he said.

The buses and bus-shelters will have public announcement systems, and LED displays. The PMPML, he said, will also be allotting work for intelligent traffic system by which it would be possible to track the movement of buses in an efficient manner. The buses will also have entertainment facilities for commuters.

In addition to the 650 buses already sanctioned by the Union urban development department, the government has in principle sanctioned 200 more buses, Band said. He added that a proposal is in the offing to run air-conditioned buses under public-private partnership basis.

Band said that the design of the new bus-shelters has been finalised and both Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporations (PMC and PCMC) will be taking up the work to install them.

PCMC will complete the installation of bus-shelters by November-December, while PMC will soon be inviting tenders for the work.

The Union government, he said, has sanctioned 2.5 Floor Space Index (FSI) for bus depots by which, PMPML will be able to redevelop the existing depots with parking facilities for buses and commuters. Some portions of the building will also be used for commercial purposes.

“PMPML is going to benefit financially in a big way by redevelopment of the bus depots,” he said. PMPML will be able to provide “park and ride” facility by redeveloping the depots.

While PCMC has already sanctioned 2.5 FSI for bus depots in Pimpri-Chinchwad, PMC will be discussing the proposal soon, he said. The bus depots will be redeveloped within a period of one year, he added.

Justifying the e-ticketing system which has been adopted by PMPML despite opposition from certain sections of people, Band said that recently the transport organisation has recently awarded an advertisement contract which will fetch Rs 24 crore for the next three years.

“This is almost double the earlier advertisement contract which fetched Rs 18 crore for the last five years,” he said. Band said that now there would be more transparency in the functioning of the PMPML.

PMPML’s joint managing director Satish Kulkarni said there would be qualitative and quantitative improvements in PMPML as only better mobility of people would help in the health and environment related problems facing the city.

PMPML, at present is transporting just 20 to 22 per cent of people. This number has to increase, he said. Responding to a suggestion by MCCIA president Mukesh Malhotra that all buses should be clean, Kulkarni said that cleanliness of buses will be the top priority for the PMPML.

PUNE: The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation’s decision to allow commercial use of land owned by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML) has pepped up the transport body chief Dilip Band, who has said that Pune’s bus transport is in the process of transforming into an efficient public transport organisation with quality buses and up-to-date commuter facilities.

Launching the Pune bus guide, developed jointly by the PMPML and Janwani, an initiative of the MCCIA, Band said, “Our prime focus is to encourage college-goers and those in IT services to travel by city buses so that the number of private vehicles on roads will reduce.”

Band said that the delivery of 500 new buses, being procured under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM), will begin from October. “The buses will have an unique colour combination and doors on both sides,” he said.

The buses and bus-shelters will have public announcement systems, and LED displays. The PMPML, he said, will also be allotting work for intelligent traffic system by which it would be possible to track the movement of buses in an efficient manner. The buses will also have entertainment facilities for commuters.

In addition to the 650 buses already sanctioned by the Union urban development department, the government has in principle sanctioned 200 more buses, Band said. He added that a proposal is in the offing to run air-conditioned buses under public-private partnership basis.

Band said that the design of the new bus-shelters has been finalised and both Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporations (PMC and PCMC) will be taking up the work to install them.

PCMC will complete the installation of bus-shelters by November-December, while PMC will soon be inviting tenders for the work.

The Union government, he said, has sanctioned 2.5 Floor Space Index (FSI) for bus depots by which, PMPML will be able to redevelop the existing depots with parking facilities for buses and commuters. Some portions of the building will also be used for commercial purposes.

“PMPML is going to benefit financially in a big way by redevelopment of the bus depots,” he said. PMPML will be able to provide “park and ride” facility by redeveloping the depots.

While PCMC has already sanctioned 2.5 FSI for bus depots in Pimpri-Chinchwad, PMC will be discussing the proposal soon, he said. The bus depots will be redeveloped within a period of one year, he added.

Justifying the e-ticketing system which has been adopted by PMPML despite opposition from certain sections of people, Band said that recently the transport organisation has recently awarded an advertisement contract which will fetch Rs 24 crore for the next three years.

“This is almost double the earlier advertisement contract which fetched Rs 18 crore for the last five years,” he said. Band said that now there would be more transparency in the functioning of the PMPML.

PMPML’s joint managing director Satish Kulkarni said there would be qualitative and quantitative improvements in PMPML as only better mobility of people would help in the health and environment related problems facing the city.

PMPML, at present is transporting just 20 to 22 per cent of people. This number has to increase, he said. Responding to a suggestion by MCCIA president Mukesh Malhotra that all buses should be clean, Kulkarni said that cleanliness of buses will be the top priority for the PMPML.

Pune Real Estate – BRTS: Civic Body To Intensify Land Acquisition Drive

Under criticism for the slow pace of development work under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), the Pune Municipal Corporation has chalked out a four-month plan to launch an extensive land acquisition drive for road widening to set up the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS).

“The civic administration has been able to only complete the acquisition process of the land that was vacant. The development work on the acquired land is almost complete and now steps are being taken to acquire the land that has structures on it,” said Sudhakar Telang, PMC land acquisition and estate officer.

He said land will be acquired on Nagar Road, Alandi Road, Sinhagad Road and Karve Road in the next four months. Telang said that since the property owners or occupants have not cooperated with the civic administration on land acquisition, the special drive will be aimed at using the powers with the civic body for forceful acquisition of land for implementing developmental projects.

“The action will be taken with the help of staff of anti-encroachment department and city police,” he said, adding, the civic body has already served notices to property owners. The action will lead to demolition of structures on roads that are to be developed for BRTS. Under JNNURM, the civic body is carrying out road widening work, developing dedicated bus lanes and cycle tracks among others.

Work on the 16.5 km BRTS stretch from Katraj to Hadapsar via Swargate was launched in 2006, however, it was plagued by accidents and delays. The PMC has now speeded up work on other BRTS routes.

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